• The branch of physics which deals with the study of relation of heat energy with different types of energy is called thermodynamics.
• Zeroth law of thermodynamics tells about thermal equilibrium.
As per first law about energy, heat given to a substance is equal to sum of change in internal energy and work done.
In second law work can be converted into heat and vice-versa but conversion is not possible with 100% efficiency.
It is impossible for a machine operating in a cyclic process to convert heat completely into work, it is kelvin‘s statement.
• Heat by itself can not transfer from a colder to a hotter body. It is clausius statement. Refrigerator is based on
• Heat engine is a device which converts heat into mechanical work. Internal combustion and external combustion heat engine are two types of heat engine.
• Car engine uses coolant added with water to reduce harmful effects like corrosion, rusting etc. Such as ethylene
glycol, polossium dichromate etc,
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• Carnot‘s theorem tells about maximum efficiency of heat engine. It refers to carnot cycle.
• Entropy measures the molecular disorder of a system and is a thermodynamic function depending only on the temperature of the system.
• Evaporation is a process in which molecules escape slowly from the surface of a liquid.
• For a given liquid the rate of evaporation demands on the temperature and area of evaporating surface.
• Refrigerator is a device used for cooling things by the evaporation and compression of a volatile liquid
inside a copper coil.