ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ENDOCRINE GLANDS
- part of fore-brain, secretes neurohormones,
which effect the release of hormones from
- Acts as the thermostat.
- smallest endocrine gland.
- Somatotrophicharmone: Its hypersecretion
leads to acromegaly in adults and gigantium
in children. Its hyposecretion leads to
dwarfness in children.
- Gonadotrophic harmone (GTH) : Stimulates
the primary sex harmones
- Lactogenic hormone: Initiates milk
production in the pregnant females.
- Thyrotrophic hormone: regulation of thyroid
- Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
- Diabetogenic or Metabolic Hormone:
- Oxytocin or Pitocin: smooth muscle
contractions, helps in the secretion of milk.
- Vasopressin or ADH (Anti-Diuretic
Hormone): Hypoactivity leads to Diabetes. THYROID GLAND
- It is the largest endocrine gland located in
the neck between the trachea and larynx.
Controls BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) it is
- Thyroxine: Hypoactivity in children leads to
- A diet, poor in iodine which is insufficient
for the synthesis of thyroxin, leads to simple
- Its hyperactivity leads to increased metabolic
- Thyrocalcitonin – controls the amount of
calcium in the body.
Hashimoto Disease:thyroid gland is destroyed. It
is known as suicide of the thyroid.
- Secretes Parathormone, which is also known
by the name of Collip’s Hormone.
- It influences calcium and phosphorus
metabolism (Ca level = 12 mg/100 ml of
- Removal of this gland leads to death due to
tetany (cramps, tremors and convulsions in
- Hyperactivity withdraws calcium from bones
- near the heart.
- formation of antibodies
- It is an exocrine as well as an endocrine
gland. Its endocrine part is known as Islets
- Beta cells secrete Insulin which controls the
amount of sugar in the blood. Its
hyposecretion leads to Diabetes Mellitus.
- Alpha cells secretes Glucagon which
increases blood sugar level.
- Gamma cells secrete Somatostatin which
controls the functioning of alpha and beta
- 2, on each kidney. Sugar metabolism, Salt
retention, Sex hormone and Source of energy
- Outer cortex and inner medulla.
- Adrenaline or epinephrine 3F Gland
- in addition to producing, sperms and ova,
also produce hormones.
- Its interstitial cells (Leydig’s cells) secrete
- Deficiency leads to sterility (eunuchoidism)
- Follicular cells producesOestrogen which
controls the female secondary sexual
- Corpus luteum secretes Progesterone which
is essential for the completion of each
- Relaxin at the end of gestation period, and
helps in eas birth by relaxing the uterus and
ligaments of the pelvic girdle.