1. THE LIVING WORLD

Unique Features of Living organism:-  Growth  Reproduction  Metabolism  Consciousness  Life span All processes of life occur in protoplasm and hence Huxley Wrightly called protoplasm as the physical basis of life. It is known as living matter because it shows all properties of life. BIODIVERSITY Currently there are some 1.7 – 1.8 million living organisms known to science. Out of which 1.25 are animals and about 0.5 millions are plants. Use of Systematics 1) Identification 2) Nomenclature 3) Classification Biological nomenclature : For providing scientific name to known organisms. Each name has two components- generic name (genus) and specific epithet (species). This system of nomenclature was provided by Carolus Linnaeus. Taxonomic categories : A taxonomic category is a rank or level in the hierarchical classification of organisms. There are seven obligate categories and some intermediate categories. Taxonomic hierarchy is given below : Kingdom Division Class Order Family Genus Species Taxonomic Aids : Techniques, procedures and stored information that are useful in identification and classification of organisms are called taxonomic aids. Like: 1. Herbarium 2. Museums 3. Zoological park 4. Botanical Garden 5. Key  Key stone species determine the biotic structure of an entire commonly.  Taxonomy is divided into three types by Turil (1938). (1)  (alpha) taxonomy – It deals with collection and identification of organisms on the basis of gross morphology, field and herbarium studies that helps to comile monographs and flora and to identify plants. It is classical taxonomy.(2)  (beta) taxonomy – It deals with collection and identification on the basis of morphology and evidences from genetics, cytology, anatomy, physiology, etc. (3)  (omega) taxonomy – It consider all microscopic observations and biochemical evidences and is equivalent to neosystematics (modern taxonomy) and based on phonetic classification.  Father H. Santapau – Father of Indian Taxonomy.  William Roxburgh – Father of Indian Botany and Indian Herbaria.  The term taxonomy was coined and used by French botanist A.P. de Candolle (1813) in his book Theorie Elementaire de La Botanique.  Term systematic was used by Swedish botanist and doctor Linnaeus (father of Taxonomy for his book System Nature (1735).  Famous Books The origin of Life Oparin Principles of Systematic Zoology Emst Mayr Phillosophic Zoologique Lamarck Systema Naturae (1735, 1758) Linnaeus Species Plantarum (1753) Linnaeus Genera Plantarum (1737) Linnaeus Philosophia Botanica Linnaeus  Correlated characters are groups of common features present in different members of a group which are used delimitation of various taxa e.g. common features in different species from a genus. This shows common ancestry.  Revision of Group. It is the grouping of species into distinct taxa of higher category on the basis of their hormology and evolutionary relationship.  Vegetation of an area is described but flora/fauna is listed.  FAA (Formalin aceto-alcohol) is a liquid preservative, most commonly used for preserving anatomy materials.  Botanical survey of India (BSI) was established in 1890. Its head office is at Calcutta. Species with two or more varieties/subspecies is known as polytypic species while the one which has no race/variety/subspecies is called monotypic species. Cohort A group of individuals of the same age within a population. Sympatric species (Sym = Similar). These are genetically unrelated (different) individuals of species having same or overlapping area of geographical distribution. Allopatric species (Allo = different). These are genetically related species having different area of geographical distribution. Lamarck gave dyanamic concept stating that species is mutable and dynamic. Biological concept of species was given by Dobzansky (1937) and Mayr (1942).

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